Your care team

There are several healthcare professionals who might be involved in confirming a diagnosis of NDM and who will help you manage your symptoms.

Healthcare professional
Role in your care
  • Primary care physician/GP

    A primary care physician is often the first doctor you will see when you recognize that you or your child is experiencing symptoms of NDM. Primary care physicians focus on your all-round ongoing healthcare and may be able to help with referring you to other services eg a neurologist or physiotherapy.1

  • General neurologist or neurologist specialising in rare neuromuscular diseases

    A neurologist is a doctor with specialist training in diseases that affect the nervous system.1 As NDM is a rare disease, it is likely that you will need to see a neurologist with additional training in rare neuromuscular diseases to confirm a diagnosis of NDM, and you may need to return for follow-up appointments if ongoing treatment is needed.

  • Specialist nurse

    Many specialist centres that treat people with NDM will have nurses who have additional training in rare diseases that affect the nervous system and muscles. Your specialist nurse will be able to help you understand your NDM diagnosis better and give more advice on how to manage your NDM-related symptoms.

  • Geneticist

    NDM is a disease caused by gene mutations.2 A geneticist has specialist training in genetic diseases and can help with ordering and interpreting genetic tests, as well as risk assessments and genetic counselling, if required.1

  • Pharmacist

    Pharmacists are experts in medicines. They will source and provide prescribed medication for patients and can help advise doctors on the suitability of different drugs. Pharmacists can also offer patients advice on taking their medication.

  • Physiotherapist

    Physiotherapists help patients improve their mobility.1 Physiotherapy may be able to help improve your muscle function and with stretching any areas that have become restricted by longstanding stiffness,3,4 in turn these may help with your balance and walking.

References
  • NHS. Available at https://www.healthcareers.nhs.uk/explore-roles#3414 Accessed March 2021.
  • Matthews E, et al. Brain 2010:133; 9–22
  • NIH. Available at
    https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Myotonia-Congenita-Information-Page Accessed March 2021
  • Heatwole CR and Moxley RT. Neurotherapeutics. 2007;4(2):238-51

What’s your NDM story?

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Share your story of your journey with NDM here

You are free to share your story in writing, video, audio, painting, or any other form that helps you tell your story about your journey with NDM.

Foods to avoid on a low-potassium diet*

  • Fruit1,2
  • Vegetables1,2
  • Beans/legumes1,3
  • Other1-3
  • Avocado
  • Artichoke
  • Baked beans
  • Bran cereal
  • Apricots
  • Beetroot
  • Kidney beans
  • Dairy (eg yoghurt, milk)
  • Bananas
  • Brussel sprouts
  • Lentils
  • Nuts
  • Dried fruits eg dates, raisins and prunes
  • Broccoli (cooked)
  • Brown rice
  • Grapefruit
  • Okra
  • Salt substitutes
  • Kiwi
  • Parsnip
  • Wholewheat bread and pasta
  • Mango
  • Potatoes (processed or with skin on)
  • Melons
  • Cooked spinach
  • Nectarines
  • Tomato (concentrated, eg. Tomato puree)
  • Oranges and orange juice
  • Papaya
  • Pomegranate and pomegranate juice
  • Fruit1,2

    Avocado

    Apricots

    Bananas

    Dried fruits eg dates, raisins and prunes

    Grapefruit

    Kiwi

    Mango

    Melons

    Nectarines

    Oranges and orange juice

    Papaya

    Pomegranate and pomegranate juice

  • Vegetables1,2

    Artichoke

    Beetroot

    Brussel sprouts

    Broccoli (cooked)

    Okra

    Parsnip

    Potatoes (processed or with skin on)

    Cooked spinach

    Tomato (concentrated, eg. Tomato puree)

  • Beans/legumes1,3

    Baked beans

    Kidney beans

    Lentils

  • Other1-3

    Bran cereal

    Dairy (eg yoghurt, milk)

    Nuts

    Brown rice

    Salt substitutes

    Wholewheat bread and pasta

*Meat and fish contain a moderate amount of potassium but they are an important source of protein so shouldn’t be avoided; Dairy products contain potassium but are an important source of calcium so should be consumed in moderation
References
  • WebMD. Low-potassium diet: what to know? Available at: https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/low-potassium-diet-foods ; Accessed March 2021
  • St Georges Kidney Patients Association. Eating on a low potassium diet. Available at: https://www.sgkpa.org.uk/main/eating-well-on-a-low-potassium-diet-2 ; Accessed March 2021
  • NHS. Information for people on a low potassium diet. Available at: https://www.nth.nhs.uk/content/uploads/2019/02/PIL1061-Information-for-people-following-a-low-potassium-diet-Final-11.02.19-LP.pdf ; Accessed March 2021
  • NDM type1
  • Symptoms2,3
  • Which type of ion channel? 2,3
  • How is it inherited?2,3
  • Thomsen myotonia congenita

    (also called Thomsen myotonia or autosomal dominant myotonia congenita)
  • Lower limbs tend to be more affected, although can also affect the arms, hands and face. Stiffness may be worse when you first try to move after a period of inactivity, and may ease as you ‘warm up’.
  • Chloride (Cl-)
  • Autosomal dominant
  • Becker myotonia congenita

    (also called Becker myotonia, Becker disease, generalized myotonia, recessive generalized myotonia or autosomal recessive myotonia congenita
  • Lower limbs tend to be more affected, although can also affect the arms, hands and face. Stiffness may be worse when you first try to move after a period of inactivity, or if you are startled, and may ease as you ‘warm up’. Sometimes people with Becker myotonia congenita experience temporary weakness after an episode of myotonia.
  • Chloride (Cl-)
  • Autosomal recessive
  • Paramyotonia congenita

    (Also called Eulenburg disease, paralysis periodica paramyotonia, paramyotonia congenita of von Eulenburg, PMC or von Eulenburg’s disease)
  • Myotonia mainly affects hands and face and gets worse with exercise. Cold is also a key trigger of myotonia, and muscle weakness after an episode of myotonia may last hours or sometimes days.
  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Autosomal dominant
  • Sodium channel myotonia, SCM:

    myotonia permanens and myotonia fluctuans, acetazolamide-responsive myotonia (ARM) previously known as Potassium aggravated myotonias (PAM)
  • Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a rare form of NDM that affects all areas of the body. Myotonia attacks are triggered by eating potassium-rich foods. Symptoms may fluctuate widely from day to day (myotonia fluctuans) or are constant and severe (myotonia permanens).
  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Autosomal dominant
  • Other closely related sodium disorders with myotonia

    (including hyperkalemic paralysis or hyperPP)
  • Myotonia is usually mild, and often involves the eyelids, hands, and tongue. Attacks of weakness can occur at any time and are commonly triggered by rest following exercise, fasting, eating potassium-rich foods or stress.
  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Autosomal dominant
References
  • Stunnenberg B. Muscle Nerve. 2020 Oct; 62(4): 430–444
  • Hahn C, Salajegheh MK. Iran J Neurol 2016;15:46–53
  • Matthews E, et al. Brain 2010:133; 9–22
  • NDM type1

    Thomsen myotonia congenita

    (also called Thomsen myotonia or autosomal dominant myotonia congenita)

    Becker myotonia congenita

    (also called Becker myotonia, Becker disease, generalized myotonia, recessive generalized myotonia or autosomal recessive myotonia congenita

    Paramyotonia congenita

    (Also called Eulenburg disease, paralysis periodica paramyotonia, paramyotonia congenita of von Eulenburg, PMC or von Eulenburg’s disease)

    Sodium channel myotonia, SCM:

    myotonia permanens and myotonia fluctuans, acetazolamide-responsive myotonia (ARM) previously known as Potassium aggravated myotonias (PAM)

    Other closely related sodium disorders with myotonia

    (including hyperkalemic paralysis or hyperPP)

  • Symptoms2,3

    Lower limbs tend to be more affected, although can also affect the arms, hands and face. Stiffness may be worse when you first try to move after a period of inactivity, and may ease as you ‘warm up’.

    Lower limbs tend to be more affected, although can also affect the arms, hands and face. Stiffness may be worse when you first try to move after a period of inactivity, or if you are startled, and may ease as you ‘warm up’. Sometimes people with Becker myotonia congenita experience temporary weakness after an episode of myotonia.

    Myotonia mainly affects hands and face and gets worse with exercise. Cold is also a key trigger of myotonia, and muscle weakness after an episode of myotonia may last hours or sometimes days.

    Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a rare form of NDM that affects all areas of the body. Myotonia attacks are triggered by eating potassium-rich foods. Symptoms may fluctuate widely from day to day (myotonia fluctuans) or are constant and severe (myotonia permanens).

    Myotonia is usually mild, and often involves the eyelids, hands, and tongue. Attacks of weakness can occur at any time and are commonly triggered by rest following exercise, fasting, eating potassium-rich foods or stress.

  • Which type of ion channel? 2,3

    Chloride (Cl-)

    Chloride (Cl-)

    Sodium (Na+)

    Sodium (Na+)

    Sodium (Na+)

  • How is it inherited?2,3

    Autosomal dominant

    Autosomal recessive

    Autosomal dominant

    Autosomal dominant

    Autosomal dominant

References
  • Stunnenberg B. Muscle Nerve. 2020 Oct; 62(4): 430–444
  • Hahn C, Salajegheh MK. Iran J Neurol 2016;15:46–53
  • Matthews E, et al. Brain 2010:133; 9–22